Please address the following in complete sentences in at least 200 words and cite any outside sources used.

1.Severe public health problems may be a result of malnourishment in certain parts of the world. In some cases, the problem is easily “fixed” by fortifying the food supply. For example, vitamin A supplementation and fortification to staple foods will dramatically and effectively reduce blindness and extremely poor immunity (a result of vitamin A deficiency.)

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While this sounds like a simple solution, there is some relevant controversy. What might be controversial, in your opinion? Costs for these efforts is enormous, so who is responsible for ensuring the nutritional well-being of the least-developed countries where such deficiencies exist?
Often, the native people are resistant to taking or having their children take supplementation or fortified foods. Put yourself in their shoes and discuss why this may be the case. Are there other solutions that you can think of other than supplementation or food fortification? Explain your rationale

2.Please respond to this in at least 150 words and cite any outside sources used.

Fortification and enrichment of foods has been happening for decades. Milk started being fortified with Vitamin D in the early 1920’s in order to prevent rickets, which was affecting the majority of youth in Boston at the time. Many breakfast cereals are fortified with minerals like niacin, riboflavin, and folic acid because most Americans don’t get enough of these in a typical diet. Some bread and wheat products are enriched in order to get the original nutrients back in that were lost during processing and bleaching. These are all FDA regulated and you can pretty much trust the ingredients on the label to be in the food. However, with things that are considered supplements, the FDA does very little to regulate what is put into them. I think a lot of parents, and people in general, should be hesitant to trust taking supplements and giving them to their kids.

Honestly, I really can’t think of a more practical and less expensive way to get the essential vitamins and minerals into a diet that is lacking. Of course we should try and eat a wide variety of foods so that we can naturally absorb them through our diets, but not everyone has access to a variety of foods. For example, I have a coworker that has many digestive issues and she can’t eat raw vegetables, foods high in acid or spice, or dairy. Aside from a feeding tube or a shot, she has to take supplements in order to get the nutrients she needs in the fruits and vegetables that she can’t eat. For another example, I don’t eat meat and so my only source of Vitamin B12 is through supplementation or fortified foods. I understand that it’s an expensive process, and I wish that there were a more practical way, I hope that science will advance us in that direction in the near future.




Please respond to this in at least 150 words and cite any outside sources used.

3.People living in third world countries suffer from malnutrition because a large portion of foods consumed do not provide adequate amounts of nutrients. For most, obtaining food that provide essential vitamins minerals, and nutrients is not an option due to cost and availability, which is where fortification becomes the alternative. Supplementing natural affordable foods that are accessible with the nutrients needed to minimize deficiency rates has given people the opportunity to live healthier longer lives. In poor countries there has been a severe deficiency in vitamin A also referred to as (VAC) leading to impaired vision or blindness, and can be reduced with a consistent intake of beta carotene (Charles 2013). The controversial side of this topic involves non-fortified foods being genetically modified to provide nutrients they would not have otherwise. There have been many issues surrounding the practice of genetically modified organisms (GMO) because they are not organic, contain large amounts of pesticides, and the long term health effects are unknown. GMO’s have actually been banned in most countries despite the benefits they provide to poverty stricken areas. A popular cost effective crop is rice but it does not provide a wide range of nutrients so in order to combat VAC it is modified with beta carotene and is known as “golden rice” (Mayer 2016). This GMO crop has done more good than harm for the people consuming it because it has reduced severe deficiencies. When it comes to responsibility I believe that it is an issue of ethics and morality. Why should the United States ignore these deficiencies when they are already so many efforts in place to reduce hunger? It is expensive and requires more labor but it works toward providing a sustainable diet for those who need it most. If someone from another country was offering me free food I would probably take it, but if it looked different than what was considered “normal” I might be hesitant for the safety of myself and my children. I think that if food fortification is not accepted than diet education is crucial to understand the need, and following that third world countries need to adapt to to growing a wider variety of crops to fulfill a healthy balanced diet.

Charles, D. (2013, March 07). In A Grain Of Golden Rice, A World Of Controversy Over GMO Foods. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2013/03/07/173…

Mayer, J. (2016). Golden Rice Project. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://www.goldenrice.org/

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